How to Perform CPR: The Life Saving Treatment
Recently, in my school, I had a lesson on CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and I thought it was very interesting, so I've decided to share how to do it on theSprout just so that more people can learn it and so more lives can be saved.
Step 1: Assess the situation
Check to see if there is anything dangerous around the area. A quick way of doing this is to look above and below you, to your left and to your right. If there is nothing dangerous that could potentially be harmful to you, you can carry on. If there is, for example, water (electricity could have been involved) or sharp objects, then you need to call help immediately before you continue to step towards the casualty.
Step 2: Check to see if they are awake
From where you are standing, without moving to be by the casualty, say very loudly, 'Hello, can you hear me? Can you open your eyes?' Ask this a couple of times and if they do not respond and you know that the area is danger free, then you can move to kneel beside the casualty. Then you ask the same question again, but at the same time, shake the shoulders gently (if you do it too hard, you may break their back). Do this a couple of times. If they are still not responding then you will need to go to the next stage.
Step 3: Get help
From where you are, shout for help really loudly. When help arrives, you need to ask the person to ring for an ambulance and tell them that a first aider is on the scene. Also, you need to ask the person to try to find a defibrillator (a device used to send an electrical impulse to the heart to try to get it pumping again). If you are in the middle of town, a lot of shops such as Boots keep them. If you are in the middle of nowhere, then you will have to just make do with compressions. If you are in a school then it is likely that they have one. In the case of help not arriving, then you will need to make the call to the ambulance service yourself; explaining that you have an unconscious male/female and that they are being treated by you, the first aider.
Step 4: Conducting the ABC Check
The ABC stands for Airways, Breathing, and Circulatory. This is the most important examination before you start the life-saving treatment on the patient. While you are on the phone to them (it's a good idea to put it on speaker phone and leave it on the floor), you need to conduct this examination to determine whether they are clinically dead or not. First of all, you have to tilt their head back slightly and open their mouth to see if there is anything obstructing the airways. If there is, DO NOT try to get it out, because you could push it down even further and then the situation would be worsened. In the case of there being something obstructing the airways, you cannot continue with treatment and you will need to wait for the ambulance to arrive. The next step is to check to see if they are breathing. Place your ear by their nose and look down the chest. There are two ways of seeing if they are breathing: one is to see if the chest rises and if it does, then it means they are breathing. The second way is to listen to the nose to see if air is entering the nostrils. After doing this, the last thing you will need to do before performing CPR is to place your first two fingers across the wrist of the patient to check for a pulse. If there is a pulse, do not continue with compressions because then they could actually stop the heart. After doing the ABC check, you should update the person on the other end of the line on what you have done and if they have failed any of the tests, you will need to tell them that.
Step 5: Compressions and Breaths
The next step you will need to perform is the compressions. Interlock your fingers from both hands and place them on the middle of the patient's chest. The compressions will need to be done to either the tune of 'Humpty Dumpty' twice or 'Nelly the elephant' once. You will need to do 30 compressions and then after you will need to place your mouth on the patients mouth. You need to hold the nose and give them two long breaths. Repeat the compressions and the breaths over and over again until the person wakes up or the help arrives with the defibrillator. Also, be aware that whenever someone is given compressions, they will always have broken ribs, but broken ribs heal and death does not.
Step 6: Using the Defibrillator
Once the help has arrived, you will need to unpack the equipment and follow the instructions on it. There will probably be two pads that you have to place on the chest of the patient. The instructions will ask you to stand back, and then it will give a shock to the patient. The patient's chest will probably jump up violently. The instructions will then say to continue with compressions and breaths while the defibrillator charges itself up again for another shock.
Step 7: Helping the ambulance service
By this time, the ambulance service will have arrived, and while they set up, they will probably ask you to continue with the CPR until they can take over.
I hope that you have learnt something from reading this, and if you have any questions, just post them in the comments section and I will respond as quickly as I can!